Использование интерфейсов и TInterfaceList



Оформил: DeeCo
Автор: http://www.swissdelphicenter.ch

{
The Classes unit provides a class TInterfaceList which is a TList that can store
interfaces (yes, those that are descendants of IUnknonw). If you need to store
interfaces do not use a TList, use TInterfaceList, otherwise you will run into
trouble.
Here is how to do it:
}
type
IMyInterface = interface
procedure AMethod;
end;
type
TMyObject = class(TInterfacedObject, IMyInterface)
procedure AMethod;
end;
{....}
var
InterfaceList: TInterfaceList;
MyInt: IMyInterface;
{....}
MyInt := TMyObject.Create;
InterfaceList.Add(MyInt);
{....}
MyInt := IMyInterface(InterfaceList[Index]);
MyInt.AMethod;
{Easy, but there is a catch. The following code will crash: }
{... declarations like above ...}
InterfaceList.Add(TMyObject.Create);
MyInt := IMyInterface(InterfaceList[0]);
MyInt.AMethod; // -> Access Violation 
{
Why is that? That is because instead of storing the IMyInterface if TMyObject we
stored its IUnknown interface in the InterfaceList. Retrieving this resulted in an
invalid typecast of a non-IMyInterface interface to IMyInterface. The resulting
interface pointer pointed to a IUnknown interface which simply does not have the
AMethod method. When we tried to call this method, the code tried to get the
corresponding method pointer from the interface's VMT and got some garbage instead.
The following, minimally changed code works:
}
{... declarations like above ...}
InterfaceList.Add(IMyInterface(TMyObject.Create));
MyInt := IMyInterface(InterfaceList[0]);
MyInt.AMethod; // -> Access Violation 
{
That is, because the explicit typecast to IMyInterface before adding the TMyObject
object to the list returned the IMyInterface interface of TMyObject rather than
the IUnknown interface. But since IMyInterface is a descendant interface of
IUnknown, it can still be stored in the InterfaceList.
Confused? Yes, so was I. It took me ages to figure out what was wrong with my
program that crashed unexpectedly. I hope this will help others to avaoid this
problem or at least find the reason why their programs don't behave as they should.
}

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